Lawyer, anti-apartheid activist, intellectual, politician. Helped establish the Congress of Democrats (COD). Accused in the 1956 Treason Trial. Detained for six months during the 1960 State of Emergency. In exile from 1963 to 1990 and lived in the UK, Angola, Mozambique and Zambia. Was general secretary of the SACP, 1986 and chief of staff of MK. Participated in the multiparty negotiations to end white rule. Minister of housing in Mandela’s government from 1994. Awarded the ANC’s highest honour Isitwalandwe Seaparankoe in 1994.