Anti-apartheid activist, academic and public servant. Was involved in ANC activities as a young person and left the country in 1964 to work in the ANC in exile. He obtained a PhD in Economics in the Soviet Union and lectured at the University of Dar es Salaam in the 1970s. He joined Umkhonto we Sizwe (MK) and its intelligence arm in 1978. In 1994 he became the first director-general of the National Intelligence Agency.