Anti-apartheid activist, politician, trade unionist and teacher. Joined the ANC, 1977. Founding member of Azanian People’s Organisation (AZAPO), 1978. Joined the SACP,1981 and the General and Allied Workers' Union (GAWU) becoming its general secretary in 1984. Elected Transvaal publicity secretary for the UDF, 1983. Elected assistant general secretary of COSATU, 1985. Minister of safety and security in Mandela’s cabinet until 1999. Minister of provincial and local government, 1999 to 2008.