Anti-apartheid activist, politician and banker. Left South Africa in 1980 and joined the ANC in exile in Lesotho. Returned to South Africa in 1990 after the unbanning of the ANC. Minister of labour in Mandela’s cabinet from 1994 to July 1998. Appointed head of the ANC’s Policy Department, 1998, which was responsible for managing ANC policy processes. Upon joining the South African Reserve Bank in July 1998 as adviser to the governor, he resigned all of his elected and appointed positions in the ANC. Appointed governor in 1999. Appointed international adviser of Goldman Sachs International, June 2010.