The Presidential Years

Politician, military commander. Began his military career in the Transkei Defence Force in 1976 and rose to the rank of brigadier by 1985. Forced the prime minister of the so-called independent state of Transkei to resign in October 1987, and two months later overthrew his successor, Stella Sigcau. Commander of the Transkei Defence Force and head of its government from 1987 until 1994 when it was reintegrated into South Africa. Elected onto the National Executive Committee of the ANC in 1994 and served as deputy minister of environment and tourism under President Mandela. Expelled from the ANC on 30 September 1996 after accusing the party of corruption. In 1997 he co-founded the United Democratic Movement (UDM), a party which he has led in Parliament since 1999.