Anti-apartheid activist and politician. He was a member of the Transvaal Indian Youth Congress and arrested in 1962 for organising an illegal strike after the ANC was banned. He went into exile after he was banned. In 1994 he became Deputy President Mbeki’s parliamentary counsellor and in 1996 deputy minister in Deputy President Mbeki’s office. After the 1999 national election he became minister in the presidency.