The Presidential Years

Anti-apartheid activist, academic and politician. An activist from an early age in Natal, he spent many years in exile in Ireland. He has a founder of the British Anti-Apartheid Movement, He was a member of the ANC’s Constitutional Committee from its establishment in 1986. Elected to the ANC NEC in July 1991, he served as a minister of water affairs and forestry from 1994 to 1999 and minister of education from 1999 to 2004.